A blog exploring functional programming and Swift.

Async Composable Architecture

Monday Aug 8, 2022

Today is a very special day. It both marks the 200th episode of Point-Free and the biggest release of our popular library, the Composable Architecture, since its first release over 2 years ago. In those two years we’ve had 51 releases, 76 contributors, 6,600 stars, and now receive over 10,000 clones a week and 20,000 visits a week to its GitHub page.

This update brings all-new concurrency tools to the library, allowing you to construct complex effects using structured concurrency, tie effect lifetimes to view lifetimes, and we accomplish all of this while keeping your code 100% testable. We think it might even be the best way to test concurrent code in SwiftUI applications. 😇

Structured effects

The library’s dependence on Combine for effects is now considered “soft-deprecated.” Rather than using Combine publishers and magical incantations of publisher operators to express your effects, you can now write complex effects from top-to-bottom using Swift’s structured concurrency tools.

As an example, in the speech recognition demo from the repo we construct an effect that:

  1. Ask the user for speech authorization and, if granted,
  2. Start a voice recognition task to get a stream of transcription results.

Previously this was quite complex with Combine, requiring expert use of flatMap, filter and map operators, but can now be a simple combination of await, guard and for await:

case .recordButtonTapped:
  return Effect.run { send in
    // 1️⃣ Ask user for speech recording permission.
    let status = await speechClient.requestAuthorization()
    await send(.speechRecognizerAuthorizationStatusResponse(status))

    // 2️⃣ If not authorized, then there's nothing more to do.
    guard status == .authorized
    else { return }

    // 3️⃣ If authorized, then start recording audio and live transcribing.
    let request = SFSpeechAudioBufferRecognitionRequest()
    for try await result in await speechClient.startTask(request) {
      await send(
        animation: .linear

This will greatly simplify how you construct complex effects. You can make use of all the tools Swift gives us for concurrency, such as await for concatenating asynchronous work, for await for subscribing to async sequences, as well as async let and task groups for running multiple units of work in parallel.

For a deep-dive into Swift’s structured concurrency tools be sure to check our concurrency collection of episodes.

Effect lifetimes

SwiftUI has a useful view modifier called task that allows you to start an asynchronous task when a view appears, and the task will be automatically cancelled when the view disappears. This is great for tying the lifetime of some work you want to perform to the lifetime of the view.

By more deeply integrating concurrency into the Composable Architecture we make it possible to tie the lifetime of effects to the lifetime of views. For example, in the view we can send an action to the view store representing the view appeared, and we can await its completion:

struct ContentView: View {
  let store: Store<State, Action>

  var body: some View {
    WithViewStore(self.store) { viewStore in
      <#View omitted#>
        .task { await viewStore.send(.task).finish() }

Then, in the reducer, we can return a long-living effect, such as subscribing to an async sequence of notifications:

case .task:
  <#Reducer logic omitted#>
  return .run { send in
    for await value in environment.notifications() {

With this setup, if the view disappears it will automatically cancel the effect and tear down the async sequence. There’s no need to send additional actions from the view in order to manually cancel the effect.

Testable concurrency

Not only does the library now have tools for fully leveraging everything that Swift’s structured concurrency gives us, but it’s all still 100% testable. In fact, we think that the Composable Architecture offers one of the most cohesive testing solutions for integrated asynchronous code in the entire Swift ecosystem.

The TestStore that ships with the library to aid in testing is now async-aware. When in an async context you can now await sending and receiving actions to the test store in order to allow asynchronous effects to execute and feed their data back into the system:

class FeatureTest: XCTestCase {
  func testBasics() async {
    let store = TestStore(…)

    await store.send(.factButtonTapped) {
      $0.isLoading = true
    await store.receive(.factResponse(.success("42 is a good number!"))) {
      $0.isLoading = false
      $0.fact = "42 is a good number!"

We are also shipping an update to our Combine Schedulers library that gives the Scheduler protocol an interface similar to Swift 5.7’s new Clock protocol. Rather than telling a scheduler to perform some work at a later time you can now tell a scheduler to suspend for a duration of time:

try await mainQueue.sleep(for: .seconds(1))

This allows you to perform time-based asynchrony, and because schedulers are testable, thanks to TestScheduler and ImmediateScheduler, we can fully test all features that make use of time-based asynchrony.

For example, in the animations case study we demonstrate how to cycle through a bunch of colors with a 1 second pause between each color:

return .run { send in
  for color in [Color.red, .blue, .green, .orange, .pink, .purple, .yellow, .black] {
    await send(.setColor(color), animation: .linear)
    try await environment.mainQueue.sleep(for: 1)

This effect can be tested using a test scheduler, which allows you to explicitly advance time forward in order to understand how the time-based effect executes. In particular, if we advance 7 seconds we will receive 7 actions for each color after the first one:

func testRainbow() async {
  await store.send(.rainbowButtonTapped)
  await store.receive(.setColor(.red)) {
    $0.circleColor = .red

  await mainQueue.advance(by: .seconds(7))
  await store.receive(.setColor(.blue)) {
    $0.circleColor = .blue
  await store.receive(.setColor(.green)) {
    $0.circleColor = .green
  await store.receive(.setColor(.orange)) {
    $0.circleColor = .orange
  await store.receive(.setColor(.pink)) {
    $0.circleColor = .pink
  await store.receive(.setColor(.purple)) {
    $0.circleColor = .purple
  await store.receive(.setColor(.yellow)) {
    $0.circleColor = .yellow
  await store.receive(.setColor(.black)) {
    $0.circleColor = .black

This makes it possible to test very complex and nuanced effects in a deterministic manner. We think these are some of the most ergonomic testing tools available to the greater Swift ecosystem.

Upgrade to 0.39.0 today!

Starting today you can update your applications to use the Composable Architecture 0.39.0 to get access to all of these tools and more. You can also update any usages of Combine Schedulers to 0.7.0 in order to start writing time-based asynchronous feature code without sacrificing testability, even if you are not using the Composable Architecture.

If you are interested in the decisions and thinking that went into these releases be sure to watch our Async Composable Architecture series of episodes to see how these tools were built from first principles.

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