Preamble

To celebrate the release of Swift macros we releasing updates to 4 of our popular libraries to greatly simplify and enhance their abilities: CasePaths, ComposableArchitecture, SwiftUINavigation, and Dependencies. Each day this week we will detail how macros have allowed us to massively simplify one of these libraries, and increase their powers.

Today we are releasing version 1.4 of our popular library, the Composable Architecture. It introduces a new @Reducer macro that can automate some of the aspects of building features in the library, and greatly simplify the tools of the library. Join us for a quick overview, and be sure to check out the 1.4 migration guide for more detailed information about how to update your applications.

@Reducer

The new @Reducer macro can now be used instead of directly conforming to the Reducer protocol:

-struct Feature: Reducer {
+@Reducer
+struct Feature {
   …
 }

It’s a very tiny change, but it comes with a number of benefits:

Simpler case paths for integrating features

The @Reducer macro automatically adds the @CasePathable macro we announced yesterday to your feature’s Action enum, which immediately gives you key path-like syntax for referring to the cases of your enum. This means you can invoke the various reducer operators that require case paths for isolating a child feature’s action with a simple key path:

 Reduce { state, action in 
   …
 }
-.ifLet(\.child, action: /Action.child)
+.ifLet(\.child, action: \.child)

Every API in the library that takes a case path has been updated to be usable with this new syntax.

Enum state

The @Reducer macro will also apply the @CasePathable macro to your feature’s State type if it is an enum, and further apply the @dynamicMemberLookup annotation. This allows you to greatly simplify how you use the library’s navigation view modifiers when dealing with an enum of destinations.

For example, previously the following was necessary to describing driving a sheet from a particular case of an enum of destinations:

.sheet(
  store: store.scope(
    state: \.$destination,
    action: { .destination($0) }
  ),
  state: /Feature.Destination.State.editForm,
  action: Feature.Destination.Action.editForm
)

It’s quite verbose and unfortunately we cannot leverage type inference to omit the long type names.

But now that getters are derived for each case of the destination enum, we can simplify to just this:

.sheet(
  store: store.scope(
    state: \.$destination,
    action: { .destination($0) }
  ),
  state: \.editForm,
  action: { .editForm($0) }
)

And in the future the @Reducer macro may acquire even more powers for helping you avoid the boilerplate of implementing Destination features for tree-based navigation and Path features for stack-based navigation.

Simpler testing of effects

One of the super powers of the Composable Architecture is its ease of testing. However, there is one aspect of testing that is quite verbose, and that is asserting when an effect emits an action.

Currently when you assert that the store receives an action, you have to construct the exact, concrete action:

store.receive(.response(.success("Hello"))) {
  $0.message = "Hello"
}

If the store received a different action than the one specified it will fail the test suite. This is very useful for proving you know exactly how your feature is behaving,

This does have a few drawbacks though. First of all, when testing deeply nested features, which is especially common with integration tests, you will need to construct a very verbose, deeply nested enum value:

store.receive(
  .destination(.presented(.child(.response(.success("Hello")))))
) {
  $0.message = "Hello"
}

Second, the receive method on TestStore does an equality check on the action received to make sure you are exhaustively proving that you know which action is being sent into the system. However, typically we don’t need to assert on the data inside the action because we already get a decent amount of coverage on that in the trailing state assertion closure. It also forces the Action enum in reducers to be Equatable, which can be annoying sometimes.

Well, now thanks to the @Reducer and @CasePathable macros we have a very short syntax for describing which enum case we expect the store to receive without specifying the data:

-store.receive(.response(.success("Hello"))) {
+store.receive(\.response.success) {
   $0.message = "Hello"
 }

And it works especially well when testing deeply nested features too:

-store.receive(
-  .destination(.presented(.child(.response.success("Hello"))))
-) {
+store.receive(\.destination.child.response.success) {
   $0.message = "Hello"
 }

And this works even if none of your actions are Equatable. In fact, because of the simplicity of this we have even decided to soft-deprecate a type included in the library, TaskResult, which only exists to help make actions equatable. Refer to the 1.4 migration guide for more information.

Basic feature linting

The macro is capable of detecting potential problems in your reducer and alerting you at compile time rather than runtime. For example, implementing your reducer by accidentally specifying the reduce(into:action:) method and the body property like so:

@Reducer
struct Feature {
  struct State {
  }
  enum Action {
  }
  func reduce(
    into state: inout State, action: Action
  ) -> EffectOf<Self> {
    …
  }
  var body: some ReducerOf<Self> {
    …
  }
}

…is considered programmer error. This is an invalid reducer because the body property will never be called. The @Reducer macro can diagnose the problem, and provide you with a helpful error message:

@Reducer
struct Feature {
  struct State {
  }
  enum Action {
  }
  func reduce(
    into state: inout State, action: Action
  ) -> EffectOf<Self> {
    …
  }
  var body: some ReducerOf<Self> {
    …
  }
}

A ‘reduce’ method should not be defined in a reducer with a ‘body’; it takes precedence and ‘body’ will never be invoked.

Get started today

Update your dependency on the Composable Architecture to 1.4 today to start taking advantage of the new @Reducer macro, and more. Tomorrow we will discuss how these new case path tools have massively improved our SwiftUINavigation library.

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