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Today we’re going to revisit a topic we’ve talked about in the past: side effects. We introduced the topic in our second episode with a deep dive on how side effects are kind of like hidden inputs and outputs to our functions, demonstrating how they make testing difficult and how they can introduce subtle bugs. Side effects are complicated and require attention.
The examples in that episode were a bit contrived, so today we’re going to look at code that’s a bit more real-world and explore how we can extract and control side effects quickly and painlessly.
This is a method we’ve used in production again and again, and it’s proven itself over time. We hope that others get the same benefit!
Today’s episode was powered by playground-driven development, but we’re talking about real-world code and that kind of code usually lives in an application target. The following exercises explore how to apply playground-driven development to actual application code.
Download the episode code and copy it into a new iOS project called “Repos”. The app should display the repos navigation controller as the window’s root view controller.
Add a framework target to the project called “ReposKit” and embed it in the Repos app. Move all of our application code (aside from the app delegate) to ReposKit. Make sure that the source files are members of the framework target, not the app target. Repos should
import ReposKitinto the app delegate in order to access and instantiate the
ReposViewController. Build the application to make sure everything still works (you will need to make some types and functions
Create an iOS playground and drag it into your app project. Import ReposKit, instantiate a
ReposViewController, and set it as the playground’s live view. You can use our original playground code as a reference.
Swap out the
Current, live world for our
mockone. This playground page can now act as a living reference for this screen! You can modify the
mockto test different states, and to test changes to the view controller, you can rebuild ReposKit.
There are a few dependencies in the application that we didn’t cover. Let’s explore controlling them over a couple exercises.
The analytics client is calling out to several singletons:
UIDevice.current. Extract these dependencies to
Environment. What are some advantages of controlling these dependencies?
DateComponentsFormattercan produce different strings for different languages and locales, but defaults to the device locale. Extract this dependency to
Environment, control it on the formatter, and demonstrate how mocking
Currentallows you to test formatting over different languages and locales.
Stephen gave a talk on our
Environment-based approach to dependency injection at NSSpain 2018. He starts
with the basics and slowly builds up to controlling more and more complex dependencies.